Engineering and understanding chloroplast function with nanomaterials
Nanoparticle Interactions with photosyntetic organisms
Near infrared images of single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) photoluminescence showing SWCNT spontaneous assembly within an extracted chloroplast
Major abiotic and biotic stresses and resource deficiencies are associated with signalling molecules that communicate and regulate plant responses including ROS (for example, H2O2), Ca2+, NO and ABA among others. Nanomaterial-mediated delivery of genetically encoded sensors enables research on signalling mechanisms of plant health that inform the design and engineering of smart plant sensors. Optical nanosensors and wearable nanotechnology-based sensors interfaced with plants allow the translation of plant chemical signals into optical and radio waves, and electric signals, which can be monitored by electronic devices. Machines with the capacity to decode spatiotemporal patterns of plant chemical signals will allow smart nanobiotechnology-based sensors to actuate agricultural devices for optimizing the plant environment. These nanobiotechnology approaches have applications ranging from research and development of technologies in the laboratory, chemical phenotyping in specialized facilities to monitoring and automation in crops for urban farming and precision agriculture.